CARE guidelines for case reports: explanation and elaboration document

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• This article provides a step-by-step guide to writing case reports that address some of the historic limitations associated with case reports.
• It follows the CARE reporting guidelines and includes examples of good case reporting that will support authors writing case reports for submission to medical journals.
• Systematic data collection from the point of care can help improve the delivery of care to patients and provide useful information for:

◦ Clinical research,
◦ Clinical practice guidelines, and
◦ Medical education.

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Dort heißt es:

Methodology of clinical research has been a focus in Anthroposophic medicine. Besides using well established methods, innovative methods were developed: For instance combined bias suppression in single arm therapy studies [1] and the systematic comparison of the order of magnitude of single-arm cohorts with corresponding cohorts [2].

Other research has gone into single case methodologies [3,4]:
Medicine is built of single cases. Individual patients – single cases – are the essence of what medicine is dealing with. Every patient is important and every case can be a lesson. Case reports have an important place in medicine and present relevant information complementing data from clinical trials. As „cornerstones of medical progress“ [5] they often are the first presentation of discoveries: new conditions, novel therapies, new perspectives in pathogenesis, inventive diagnostic procedures. Their publication often provokes others to try to reproduce the observation and thus to either confirm or refute the initial hypothesis. A recent example is the discovery of beneficial effects of propranolol in severe hemangiomas of infancy, which found its way into routine application after the publication of just a few case reports. Another domain is side effects. The Thalidomide tragedy came to light by a courageous pediatrician and geneticist analyzing and presenting numerous cases. About 40% of all side effects are uncovered by case reports. [6] They can test the applicability of clinical guidelines in clinical practice, and they can also help to implement them. Many disciplines find themselves represented mainly in case reports.

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